APPENDIX IV: SOME THOUGHTS ON STAR FORMATION
So now the universe is populated with hydrogen stars. Gravitational forces squeeze them so that they become hotter - the bigger the star, the hotter its core. This heat and pressure cause the hydrogen to fuse into helium, with the release of energy, which we see as light. So the bigger the star, the hotter it is and the brighter it shines. The brighter it shines, the more energy it is emitting and the more energy it is emitting, the quicker its hydrogen is converted into helium and the shorter its life as an ordinary star.
It is this emission of energy which tries to expand the star and so resists the gravitational force which is trying to contract it. This phase of a star's life lasts from less than 20 million years in the case of a very massive star to several billion years in the case of a medium sized star like our sun. But eventually, all the hydrogen is used up and gravitation starts to compress the star. It becomes even hotter and a new reaction starts. Helium is now being converted into carbon. For a time, the energy emitted by this reaction resists further gravitational contraction. When the helium is exhausted, further contraction and heating starts off the last reaction, in which carbon is converted into iron.
There is now no more radiation energy left to ward off the gravitational pressure, and the star starts to collapse. Then one of three things can happen, depending on the mass of the star. I have to show that Aether plays a crucial role in each.
WHITE DWARFS & AETHER
If a collapsing star is about the size of our sun or smaller, it contracts until the mutual repulsion of the electrons of its constituent atoms prevents further contraction and the star settles down as a so-called 'white dwarf' star for billions of years. The density of a white dwarf is such that a sugar lump of its matter weighs hundreds of tons!
This is the orthodox scientific theory, but it does not explain where the energy can come from to keep it burning - to keep, in other words, the white dwarf white. I propose that the intense gravitational field does overcome the mutual repulsion of some of the electrons. And if their atoms are forced together, they lose their individuality. And if they lose their individuality, their Aethers must dissociate. And if their Aethers dissociate, they will be converted into energy. And this conversion will have two effects: the outward pressure of the radiated energy will counterbalance the gravitational pressure and the star will keep burning and shining. The white dwarf will stay white!
SUPERNOVA & AETHER
If the star is between about 1« times and 3 times the size of our sun, the initial collapse is so violent that the released gravitational energy gives rise to that most dramatic of all the cosmological events, the vast explosion called a supernova. This explosion blasts off the outer layers of the star as a huge incandescent cloud of gas, rich in the heavier atoms. The energy of this explosion is so enormous that it briefly outshines all other stars in the sky.
While this account of its formation represents the current state of scientific knowledge, there is a snag. The latest (1989) observations indicate that the energy emitted by a supernova is much more than could be generated simply by the gravitational collapse of the outer layers of the star.
Can my hypothesis offer any explanation as to where this missing energy could be coming from? The answer is 'yes' and the explanation goes like this. 'As the outer layers collapse on the inner core, this gives rise to a wave of compression so vast that parts of the compressed matter become momentarily infinitely dense. And I have already discussed what I propose happens to matter which reaches that condition: its time slows to zero and its 3rd dimension Aether departs leaving behind energy. In other words, matter subjected to such pressure would be converted into energy and it is this energy of transformation which accounts for the 'missing energy' which is puzzling orthodox science.
As for the core of the exploded star, left behind after the explosion, modern theory has it that it has been subjected to such pressure that the repulsion between the electrons of its constituent atoms is overcome and the these fuse with the protons to become neutrons. The star thus formed is called a neutron star and it is so dense that a sugar cube of its stuff would weigh hundreds of millions of tons!!
BLACK HEAVYWEIGHTS & AETHER
The third possible fate of a collapsing star is when its mass is more than 3 times that of our sun. In this case, the core is simply not strong enough to withstand the pressure and 'throw off' the outer layers as in a supernova. Consequently it continues to collapse. As it gets denser and denser its gravitational field becomes so enormous that energy (which I believe is acted upon by gravitation) simply cannot escape. Part of such energy is of course light, so light cannot escape. So the star disappears from sight, leaving a 'black hole'.
So far so good. But now our theory parts company with orthodox science. Orthodox science claims that since there is nothing to prevent the collapsing process, it must continue until the entire star contracts to a point and effectively disappears out of space down this black hole. However, so orthodox theory insists, in this slightly mystical semi-existent condition, it continues to exert its enormous gravitational field, whose presence can be detected by the force it exerts on neighbouring stars. My theory, however, obviates any need to postulate such a mysterious outcome, simply because it insists that there is something that will stop the collapsing process. That something is the energy resulting from the departure of Aether from matter whose density is becoming infinite.
I propose, then, that the first result of this collapse must be an even greater explosion than that of a supernova, as vast quantities of matter are converted into energy by the departure of Aether. Is there anything which might fit this description? Yes, there is. It is called a 'Gamma Ray Burster' and is the most powerful explosion in the Universe. In less than a second it emits as much energy as a supernova releases. And guess what: the latest scientific explanation is that it marks the birth of a Black Hole! But I am proposing that after this explosion more and more matter would be converted into energy as the collapsing process continues, until enough is being produced to halt any further collapse. So the final stage of a collapsed massive star would not be a 'black hole' but a 'black heavyweight'. It would then be possible that the evolution of energy and the reduction of gravitation together would cause some Black Heavyweights to light up in pulses, to flicker, as gravity and radiation alternately got the upper hand. I suggest that this is what some Pulsars might be, not the rapidly rotating neutron stars proposed by current scientific orthodoxy, an explanation which has to cope with the fact that the pulses can be as rapid as 642 per second!
Note that such loss of energy, arising from the conversion of mass, will cause the Black Heavyweight to shrink until it ends up as a neutron star.